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November 15, 2016
Without Charters, Union City Achieves Academic Success through Robust Bilingual Education and Wrap-Around Services
Union City, New Jersey, continues to achieve academic success through robust bilingual education and wrap-around services, reported The Wall Street Journal. Defying conventional wisdom, Union City education leaders have not outsourced school management to charter operators but rather focused on improving bilingual education and making schools neighborhood hubs. As neighborhood hubs, schools in Union City serve three free meals a day to students, provide medical and counseling services, and host workshops for parents on immigration matters, nutrition, and good parenting. While 95 percent of students are Hispanic and approximately 15 percent are undocumented immigrants, the high-school graduation rate of 87 percent nearly matches the statewide average. In addition, scores on math and reading tests are one-third above the national average. In Improbable Scholars (Oxford University Press, 2013), David Kirp describes in detail the ingredients of this outlier school district.
November 14, 2016
Number of Home-Schooled Students Doubles from 1999 to 2012
The number of home-schooled students in the United States doubled from 1999 to 2012, reported The Washington Post. The data come from a recently released study published by the National Center for Education Statistics. About 1.8 million students aged 5 to 17 were home-schooled in 2012. That number represented 3.4 percent of students across the country. The distribution of home-schooled students by locale is fairly even: about one-third of home-schooled children lived in rural areas, somewhat more than one-third lived in suburbs, and somewhat less than one-third lived in cities.
November 14, 2016
China Bans For-Profit Operation of Primary and Lower-Secondary Schools
The Chinese government imposed a ban on for-profit operation of primary and lower-secondary schools, upending a burgeoning sector, reported The Wall Street Journal. The new law, entitled "Promotion of Private Education," stands to be costly for such commercial ventures as Nord Anglia Education, a company based in Hong Kong that manages six schools across China, and Avenues, a company based in New York that has long planned on opening a school in China. As the name of the law makes clear, private schooling is not the target. To the contrary, the Chinese government wants to promote private education to provide a wider array of academic offerings to students. However, the concept of for-profit management had fallen out of favor. In fact, the new law stipulates that private schools should better align curricula with the goals of the Communist Party. A bulletin from the Education Ministry declared that a central purpose of the law was to "ensure private schools are run from start to finish in a way supportive of socialism." This reversal by the Chinese government, in turn, provides a classic illustration of the political risk involved in foreign direct investment. Nord Anglia Education and similar companies will have to refashion themselves as nonprofits or close their schools.
September 13, 2016
Battle Over Charters in Massachusetts Heats Up
While there is no doubt in Massachusetts that Hillary Clinton will take the state on November 8, a referendum question on the same ballot to lift the cap on the state's charter schools is hotly contested. The Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993 limited the number of the state's charter schools to 120. Of the state's 1,860 publicly funded schools today, 78 are charter schools. This portion of 4 percent falls short of the national average of 7 percent. Governor Charlie Baker and charter advocates want this gap closed. After the Senate and House failed to arrive at a solution this summer, their leaders decided to send the issue to the people in the form of a referendum question. As Question 2 on the November ballot, the proposal calls for permitting up to 12 new charter schools per year. According to a September poll by WBUR, Boston's National Public Radio affiliate, 48 percent of likely voters said they would vote against the proposal, 41 percent said they would for it, and the remaining 11 percent said they were unsure. Winning over the undecided has led to an intense battle and the influx of big money from out of state. According to The Boston Globe, $12 million has come from charter advocates to buy ads and commercials. Of that sum, Families for Excellent Schools, a national advocacy group based in New York, sent $5.5 million; Jim Walton, son of Walmart founder Sam Walton, gave $1.1 million; and former New York mayor Michael Bloomberg contributed $240,000. Opponents have raised $6.8 million. The biggest contributor is the Massachusetts Teachers Association, providing $4.2 million. From out of state, the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association gave $700,00 and $1.9 million, respectively.
September 07, 2016
Wall Street Journal Accuses the Department of Education of Double Standard for For-Profit Colleges
In its lead editorial, The Wall Street Journal accused the Department of Education of employing a double standard in its treatment of for-profit colleges. Coming to the defense of ITT Educational Services--which shut down on September 6, two weeks after the DOE ruled that the company was no longer qualified to receive federal funding because of deceptive advertising, low graduation rates, and poor job placement of graduates--the newspaper contended that the DOE could have likewise gone after Laureate International Universities but did not. The newspaper claimed that because Bill Clinton was the honorary chancellor of Laureate from 2010 to 2015, the company received special treatment, even though graduation rates were similar to those at ITT and average student debt higher.
September 07, 2016
ITT Shuts Down
The decision by the Department of Education on August 25 to deny ITT Educational Services federal funding foreshadowed an imminent shutdown by the for-profit college operator. ITT executives announced the expected on September 6, reported The New York Times, closing all of the company's 137 campuses but one that operates under a different name, Daniel Webster College in New Hampshire. This means approximately 35,000 students must make new plans for their studies and roughly 8,000 employees must look elsewhere for work.
August 26, 2016
ITT Educational Services Becomes Another For-Profit College Casualty of Tighter DOE Oversight
The Department of Education dropped the hammer on ITT Educational Services, a for-profit operator of 137 colleges across 39 states, reported The New York Times. The DOE, according to the newspaper, decided on August 25 to bar ITT "from enrolling new students who use federal financial aid" and ordered the company "to pay $153 million to the department within 30 days to cover student refunds if its schools close down." The first measure alone amounts to a death blow, as nearly 70 percent of the company's revenue of $850 million last year came in the form of federal aid. "The company has been under increased scrutiny by the Education Department since 2014," the newspaper noted, "and has been accused by both federal and state regulators of misleading students about the quality of its programs and their employment potential upon graduation. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau filed a lawsuit against ITT two years ago, accusing the college chain of predatory student lending." If ITT shuts down, it will join Corinthian Colleges as the second major U.S. for-profit tertiary institution in two years to cave under the pressure of tighter DOE oversight.
August 12, 2016
DOE Rejects Utah For-Profit Appeal for Nonprofit Status
The Department of Education rejected an appeal from a Utah-based for-profit college operator to gain nonprofit status, reported The Wall Street Journal. The attraction of nonprofit status is patent: for-profit college companies cannot collect more than 90 percent of tuition in the form of federal student grants and loans; in addition, they must abide by new stringent requirements stipulating that graduates find employment in their field. The college in question is the Center for Excellence in Higher Education, with 12,000 students on campuses across four states (Arizona, California, Colorado, and Utah). In a blunt press release, Education Secretary John B. King Jr. said, "This should send a clear message to anyone who thinks converting to nonprofit status is a way to avoid oversight while hanging onto the financial benefits: Don’t waste your time.”
August 12, 2016
Coding Academies Win Federal Backing
The Department of Education is set to launch a pilot program to permit students to use federal grants and loans to pay for courses at for-profit coding academies like the Flatiron School in New York, reported The Wall Street Journal. Flatiron charges $15,000 for a 12-week course in coding tailored to the demands of companies like Apple, Google, and Ticketmaster. With this pilot, the DOE is sidestepping conventional practice of requiring that institutions first gain accreditation from regional authorities.
August 10, 2016
Facebook Collaborates with Charter Network to Develop Self-Paced Online Curriculum
Facebook has teamed up with Summit Public Schools, a charter network with 11 schools in California and Washington, to develop a student-directed online curriculum, reported The New York Times. Called the Summit Personalized Learning Platform, the new approach will be introduced this fall in 120 schools. "The software gives students a full view of their academic responsibilities for the year in each class and breaks them down into customizable lesson modules they can tackle at their own pace," read the story in the Times. "A student working on a science assignment, for example, may choose to create a project using video, text or audio files. Students may also work asynchronously, tackling different sections of the year’s work at the same time." While certainly iconoclastic, this methodology is far from original, something the newspaper failed to acknowledge. Kunskapsskolan, a school management company in Sweden running 36 schools, implemented a similar student-directed online curriculum in 2000. The New York City Department of Education introduced its own variation on this model in 2009 with School of One, now known as Teach to One, which operates six schools across the district.
August 04, 2016
Economists Find Charter Schools in Texas Have Insignificant Effects
Drawing on data from the Texas Education Agency and the Texas Workforce Commission for all students who graduated from public high schools in the state between 2002 and 2006, the economists Will Dobbie and Roland G. Fryer found in a working paper entitled "Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes" that charter schools, on average, had no impact on test performance and a negative influence on income. In the case of “No Excuses” charter schools—such as IDEA College Prep, KIPP, Uplift Education, and YES Prep, all defined by rigid behavioral and academic expectations—Dobbie and Fryer found a positive impact on both test performance and college enrollment but only a small, statistically insignificant effect on income. Terming the results of their study counterintuitive given the widespread confidence in charter schools, Dobbie and Fryer speculated that it may be the case that “what it takes to increase acheivement among the poor in charter schools deprives them of other skills that are important for labor markets.”
August 03, 2016
School Choice in England Leads to Significant Segregation
While oversubscribed charter schools in the United States must employ lotteries for admission, their counterparts in England--academies and free schools--have control over whom they admit. The result, according to an analysis summarized by The Guardian, has been significant segregation of students by class as well as academic achievement. The analysis, done by a company called DataDash, found that many academies and free schools enrolled a fraction of the underprivileged children in neighboring schools. Only 2 percent of students at one free school in Blackpool are eligible for free school meals, for example, while 42 percent of students in the district qualify. Similar disparities exist across the country, DataDash found. Legislated into existence in 2000, academies are former state schools funded by the central government and granted significant operational autonomy. There are now 5,302 academies. Free schools, introduced in 2010, are academies by another name, created by teachers, charities, parents, or religious groups. There are now 304 free schools. Prime Minister David Cameron and his education secretary, Michael Gove, pledged to make all schools in England academies in order to give parents more choice and school adminstrators more freedom. Cameron's successor, Theresa May, and her education secretary, Justine Greening, have so far stood behind this pledge.
August 02, 2016
NAACP Convention Delegates Call for Moratorium on Charter School Growth
Delegates at the annual convention of the NAACP last week called for a moratorium on charter school growth, reported Julian Vasquez Heilig on his blog, Cloaking Inequity. Meeting in Cincinnati, delegates declared that charter schools have operated without sufficient transparency; intensified segregation; employed psychologically harmful disciplinary policies; and deprived neighborhood public schools of necessary space and resources through co-location in district buildings. Heilig, education chair of the California/Hawaii branch of the century-old civil rights organization, explained that this resolution merely reflects the opinion of voting delegates, not policy. To become policy, the resolution needs approval of the NAACP National Board, which meets in the fall. Heilig nevertheless called the resolution a momentous event.
August 02, 2016
More than 7 Million Americans in Default on Student Loans
Approximately 16 percent of the 43 million Americans with student debt are in default, reports The Wall Street Journal: "These borrowers have gone at least a year without making a payment--ignoring hundreds of phone calls, emails, text messages and letters from federally hired debt collectors." The federal government has committed to work with debtors by cutting monthly payments and burying a portion of balances. In addition, the government is expanding its program to relinquish debt incurred by borrowers for degrees at schools found gulity of false advertising. Yet in despair, debtors are stonewalling the government. Especially hard hit have been students who attended for-profit institutions, who have defaulted on loans at more than twice the rate as their counterparts at nonprofit public or private schools. Three such students are profiled in this Wall Street Journal article, two of whom earned degrees as medical assistants from a small for-profit college in Oregon but could not find work in the field.
August 01, 2016
Carol Burris Challenges Public Nature of Charter Schools
Charter schools shouldn't be considered public schools, contended Carol Burris in an essay posted by Valerie Strauss on her Answer Sheet blog for The Washington Post, because they don't report directly, if at all, to elected school boards; because many of them enroll significantly fewer English language learners and students with special needs than neighboring district schools; and because many close their doors in upper grades to newcomers. In illustration of the last matter, Burris cited a pyramid effect on class size at one school in the Success Academy network, with 73 students in second grade dropping seven years later to 26 in ninth grade, 79 students in the following year's second grade dropping six years later to 44 in eighth grade. Whereas attrition in district schools is matched by enrollment of new students in upper grades, that does not occur at Success Academy and similar charter networks in the name of preserving a school culture. To Burris, this exclusionary practice necessarily conflicts with the definition of public education.
July 29, 2016
KIPP Fights "Summer Melt"
As many as 30 percent of poor urban high school seniors accepted to college don't attend because of doubts and fears that build over the summer. The national charter network KIPP fights this problem, known as "summer melt," with a three-week "summer bridge" program, reports The Wall Street Journal. With brush-up classes in math and writing as well as discussion sessions on time management, self-advocacy, financial budgeting, and campus social life, students get immersed in college before getting to college.
July 23, 2016
Brazilian For-Profit Tertiary Sector Undergoes Significant Consolidation
While the for-profit tertiary sector in the United States has shrunk significantly over the past few years because of fraud investigations concerning enrollment of underqualified applicants, inflation of student passing rates, and exaggeration of graduate employment data, the same sector in Brazil has mushroomed to address growing demand the government has not been able to meet with state-funded institutions. Approximately 30 percent of university students in Brazil, in fact, attend schools run by for-profit companies. One company, Kroton, counts more than a million students in undergraduate programs spread across 130 campuses. The economic crisis in Brazil has nevertheless forced companies to consolidate, reports Inside Higher Ed, leading to significant merger-and-acquisition activity. Fear of a resulting oligopoly has led the House of Representatives in Brasilia to call for hearings on this activity.
July 22, 2016
Southern Poverty Law Center Challenges Constitutionality of Publicly Funded Charter Schools in Mississippi
Though Arkansas and Louisiana are both home to many charter schools, neighboring Mississippi passed legislation for charter schools only six years ago and is home to merely two charter schools. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), the state should be home to none. In a lawsuit filed in the First Judicial District of the Chancery Court of Hinds County, the SPLC contended that the state constitution stipulates that publicly funded schools must be under the direct supervision of state and local boards of education.
July 22, 2016
California Attorney General Announces $169 Million Settlement with K12 Inc.
In acknowledgment of having overstated student progress and parent satisfaction in advertisements and of having inflated student attendance data, K12 Inc., the Virginia-based for-profit operator of virtual charter schools, agreed to a $169 million settlement with the attorney general of California, reported The San Jose Mercury News. According to the settlement, K12 must also drop any form of incentive pay for staff enrolling students; guarantee the accuracy of claims in advertisements; and ensure teachers properly monitor student attendance. Building on the settlement, Assemblywoman Susan Bonilla introduced a bill to ban for-profit virtual charter companies from operating in the state. That proposal, Assembly Bill 1084, will be reviewed when legislators return to work in August.
July 22, 2016
Paul Tough Disavows Focus on Character Education
In a Q&A with Education Week about his new book, Helping Children Succeed: What Works and Why, Paul Tough disavows the confidence in character education he espoused in his 2012 book, How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character. Tough instead calls for a macrocosmic approach focused on bettering the everyday environment of young children. Citing research in neuroscience, Tough contends that interventions during early childhood to improve parenting, in particular, would lay the foundation for the shift in mindset some educators are trying to cultivate through instruction and assessment. "It's not that I think we shouldn't measure them [non-cognitive skills]," Tough said, "it's that I think we don't know how to measure them.... The most productive direction to try to change students' psychology is to think about what educators and policymakers can do to shape the environment that surrounds kids."
July 22, 2016
New York City to Add 16 More PROSE Schools
A reform initiative launched in 2014 by the New York City Department of Education (DOE) in partnership with the United Federation of Teachers (UFT) and Council of School Supervisors and Administrators (CSA) will get 16 new sites in September, reported Politico. Called PROSE, for Progressive Redesign Opportunity Schools of Excellence, this program permits affiliated schools to operate outside the boundaries of UFT and CSA contracts. Schools may schedule longer periods and days, for example. As such, PROSE at once comports with the pedagogical philosophy of the New York Performance Standards Consortium, formed in 1997 as a group of 28 high schools with considerable autonomy for curriculum and assessment, and constitues an implicit response by Mayor Bill de Blasio to the growing presence of non-union charter schools in the city, which he has repeatedly termed a solution for too few students. More fundamentally, PROSE comports with the vision of charter schools articulated in the 1980s by Ray Budde and Albert Shanker: alternative schools within districts serving as laboratories for innovation. PROSE started with 63 schools. With these additional sites, PROSE will number 140. The goal for PROSE by 2018 is 200 schools.
July 22, 2016
Bridgeport Education under Federal Investigation
Bridgeport Education, the for-profit operator of Ashford University and the University of the Rockies, is under investigation by the Justice Department, reported The Washington Post, for having allegedly underreported the amount of tuition money it received from the federal government in the form of grants and loans. According to the 90/10 rule, for-profit universities may not receive more than 90 percent of tuition in this form. Justice Department investigators are studying financial documents from 2011 to 2014. There are nearly 51,000 students enrolled at the company's two universities.
June 30, 2016
Much School Choice in Detroit but Little Quality
The push for educational privatization in Michigan initiated a generation ago by Governor John Engler has resulted in abundant choice in Detroit, reports Kate Zernike in The New York Times, but little quality. With 53 percent of its students attending charter schools, Detroit has the second highest degree of charter enrollment in the county, behind only New Orleans, which transmuted into a largely charter district after Hurricane Katrina. Facilitating growth in Detroit, Zernike writes, is a controversial clause in a 2011 education law permitting for-profit educational managements companies (EMOs), such as J.C. Huizinga's National Heritage Academies, to rent space to schools they operate without having to pay taxes on their real estate earnings.
June 30, 2016
New York Times Blasts Governor Christie's School Funding Recommendation
In a scathing rebuke, the editorial board of The New York Times blasted Governor Chris Christie's recommendation that New Jersey's landmark compensatory school fundng formula be repealed. The editors called Christie's proposal "toxic." Grounded in a 1990 state court decision to allocate more money to poor school districts suffering from inadequate local property tax revenue, New Jersey's formula significantly subsidizes 31 school districts, several of them, such as Newark and Camden, home to many charter schools.
June 30, 2016
AFT Pulls Pension Investments from Hedge Funds Opposed to Unionized Teachers
Setting aside whether the high fees and uneven performance of hedge funds justify investing retirement money of union members, AFT president Randi Weingarten is pulling money from hedge funds opposed to unionized teachers. Many hedge fund leaders, Daniel Loeb of Third Point LLC among them, are heavy backers of non-union charter schools and adamant critics of unionized teachers. Weingarten said in an interview with The Wall Street Journal, "Why would you put your money with someone who wants to destroy you?" Loeb, chairman of the board of Success Academy, is fighting back. At a fundraiser for Success Academy in May, Loeb pledged an extra $1 million to the charter network in Weingarten's name.
June 30, 2016
Walton Family Foundation Donates $250 Million to Help Charter Schools Lease Space
The Walton Family Foundation announced a donation of $250 million to help charter schools lease space. A central impediment to charter school growth has been occupancy costs. Where charter schools obtain free space in school district buildings, their per-pupil allocations approximate per-pupil allocations in district schools. However, where such free space is not obtained, charter schools operate at a significant financial disadvantage. This Walton initiative will focus on established charter school networks with proven records as well as promising new charter schools in 17 cities, Boston, Camden, NJ, and New York among them. This donation comes six months after a $1 billion donation from the same foundation to spur charter school growth.
June 23, 2016
New York State Senate Appears to Lift Lid on Number of Uncertified Teachers in Charter Schools
In return for conferring one more year of control of New York City’s schools to Mayor Bill de Blasio, Republicans in the State Senate extracted a concession from Democrats that appears to lift the lid on the number of uncertified teachers charter schools may employ. The charter advocacy group Families for Excellent Schools issued a statement calling the compromise “a massive victory.” State law currently stipulates that charter schools may have no more than 15 uncertified teachers on staff. As several charter school networks, Success Academy chief among, depend heavily on young teachers who’ve yet to earn certification, this modification of the law would significantly diminish pressure on leaders to staff their schools. The Assembly speaker, Carl E. Heastie, a Democrat, as well as spokesmen for Mayor de Blasio, however, disputed the interpretation of the wording of the compromise, claiming state charter law regarding employment of uncertified teachers remained unchanged. Trustees of the State University of New York will have the final word.
June 21, 2016
The Limits of Character Education
In a wide-ranging essay for The New Yorker, David Denby deconstructs the concept of “grit” espoused by Angela Duckworth and embraced by charter school networks employing the “no excuses” philosophy of hard work. Citing research by neuroscientists and pediatricians into early childhood development, Denby argues that “high levels of toxic stress” experienced by youngsters in blighted neighborhoods may put the development of grit “out of reach” for many of the students the focus on character growth is intended to help.
June 19, 2016
Record Number of Charter Schools in Ohio Set to Close
A record number of charter schools in Ohio are set to close this year, reported The Columbus Dispatch, in response to a new state law mandating tighter standards. According to officials at the Ohio Department of Education, at least 19 of the state's 374 charter schools will not reopen. Last year, the total was 14.
June 16, 2016
Minnesotan Authors of Charter Legislation Reflect on 25 Years of Growth
Twenty-five years after Minnesotan lawmakers introduced the process of chartering schools, Education Week interviewed Ember Reichgott Junge and Ted Kolderie, two authors of the legislation, and documented the divergence of expectations and realities. The legislation itself broke from recommendations made by Albert Shanker in 1988 that charter schools function as experimental academies operated within the boundaries of district and union contracts. That breach, in turn, led to the unexpected operation of charter networks across the country. Minnesota nevertheless remained faithful to Shanker's vision in two critical respects, reports Education Week: first, only in Minnesota has the authority of chartering schools rested with the local teachers' union; and second, only four of the state's 160 charter schools are managed by multitstate charter networks, whereas approximately 40 percent of charter schools across the country are overseen by such networks.
June 16, 2016
Accreditor of For-Profit Colleges Facing Extinction
The U.S. Department of Education recommended on June 15 that the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS) lose its recognition. The organization, founded in 1912, has been at the center of a storm circling the for-profit colleges it has certified. Attorneys general in as many as 37 states have conducted fraud investigations into for-profit colleges for having enrolled underqualified applicants, inflated passing rates of students, and exaggerated employment data of graduates. The fate of ACICS will go to a vote next week by the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI), an advisory board serving the Department of Education. Should NACIQI vote ACICS down and should ACICS fail to win a reversal on appeal in court, The Wall Street Journal reported, the for-profit colleges certified by ACICS may face a loss of of "access to nearly $5 billion in federal finanical aid for more than 800,000 students." A sector already in retreat could thus collapse.
June 12, 2016
ITT Educational Services on the Brink of Bankruptcy
Long a Wall Street darling, for-profit college operator ITT Educational Services appears to be on its way to following former competitior Corinthian Colleges Inc. into bankruptcy. Citing financial weakness for the national network of 138 campuses across 39 states, the U.S. Department of Education informed company executives that they must pay the federal government $44 million to cover potential student refunds should the company fold. This money, Gretchen Morgensen explains in The New York Times, would be necessary to fund the forgiveness of federal student loans. According to federal law, students at colleges that collapse qualify for a "false certification discharge." With high student dropout and default rates, for-profit colleges have incurred increasing scrutiny from federal regulators and state attorneys general and, in the process, seen valuations and revenues plummet.
June 10, 2016
Gates Foundation Concedes School Reform a Daunting Challenge
The Gates Foundation conceded in a report that its campaign since 1999 to transform U.S. education has proven far harder than expected. In an editorial in The Los Angeles Times, the newspaper's board opined that the foundation's reversals on its considerable investment in small high schools (capped at 500 students), performance-based pay for teachers, and rapid roll-out of the Common Core standards illustrated the daunting challenge of school reform.
June 09, 2016
Growth in Urban Charter Schools Puts Financial Pressure on Host Districts
Considerable growth of charter schools over the past decade in Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago, Kansas City, Los Angeles, and many other cities across the country has placed significant financial pressure on host districts. With money following students from district schools to charter schools, funding available for goods and services beyond fixed costs for host districts has necessarily declined, forcing school closures, requiring central office layoffs, and preventing raises for staff.
June 08, 2016
Surge in Montessori Charter Schools
A new study documents a surge in charter schools using the Montessori pedagogical philosophy. According to the study, approximately 82 percent of the 168 public Montessori schools opened since 2000 are operated by charter boards; the remainder are public magnet schools using the distinctive child-centered approach to learning. The study moreover finds that Montessori charters are considerably less economically and racially diverse than Montessori magnet schools.
June 07, 2016
Nevada Judge Upholds Constitutionality of State's School Choice Bill
Nevada District Court Judge Eric Johnson ruled that the state's new school choice bill, passed in 2015 and allowing families to use $5,100 in government money per child toward tuition at a private school, whether religious or independent, comported with the law. Johnson declared Senate Bill 302 "neutral with respect to religion" as parents, not state officials, determine where the money is spent.